Statements, definitions and publications

Our Statements outline the standards we expect of doctors. They set out the principles and values that define good medical practice, including medical care and prescribing, communication and consent, cultural competence, and professional conduct.

The Medical Council has published principles and procedures covering notifications management, performance assessment, and professional conduct committee processes.

All doctors must be familiar with our definitions of the practice of medicine, clinical and non-clinical practice, and fitness to practise, and follow this guidance.

Employment of doctors

  • Employment of doctors and the HPCAA

    This document provides general advice to employers (including DHBs and some PHOs) about their responsibilities as an employer of a doctor.

Good medical practice

  • Good Medical Practice

    Our "Good medical practice" publication provides guidance to doctors on the standards of practice we expect.

Medical care

  • Doctors and CAM Complementary and alternative medicine

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) refers to therapies and treatments that are not commonly accepted in conventional medical practice, but are sometimes used alongside or instead of conventional medical treatments. This statement guides doctors in situations where their patients are using CAM, and outlines what we expect when doctors practise CAM.

  • A doctor's duty to help in a medical emergency

    This statement outlines how doctors should respond in an emergency and highlights a number of obligations that apply in that situation.

  • This statement outlines the rights and responsibilities of health care workers and infected health care workers in relation to transmissible major viral infections.

  • Statement on cosmetic procedures

    This statement outlines Council's expectations of doctors who perform cosmetic procedures. These include standards relating to training, skill and expertise, advertising and obtaining consent from the patient.

  • Resource limitation is a reality in health care, and for doctors, this often means prioritising based on clinical need and waiting lists. This statement guides doctors working in a resource-constrained environment by setting out ethical principles and practical advice.

Good prescribing practice

  • Statement on good prescribing practice

    Prescribing medicines and treatment is an essential part of medical practice. This statement outlines what good prescribing practice involves and the legal requirements doctors must comply with.

  • Doctors and performance enhancing medicines in sport

    Certain medicines have the potential to enhance athletic performance or an individual's physique. We set out in this statement our position on doctors who prescribe, administer and supply performance-enhancing medicines, or who assist others in doing so.

Cultural competence

  • Statement on cultural safety

    This statement outlines what cultural safety means and why it is important. The document reflects the evolution of thinking away from the cultural competence of doctors – that is acquiring skills and knowledge of other cultures – towards self-reflection of a doctor’s own attitudes and biases that may affect the cultural safety of patients. Council requires doctors to meet these cultural safety standards.

  • To work successfully with patients whose cultural background may be different from their own, a doctor must demonstrate cultural sensitivity when interacting with patients. This statement outlines the attitudes, knowledge and skills relevant to doctors in their relationships with Māori patients and their whānau.

  • Best health outcomes for Māori: Practice implications

    To develop trusting and therapeutic relationships with patients from different cultural backgrounds a doctor needs to demonstrate the appropriate attitudes, awareness, knowledge and skills. This booklet explains the cultural diversity and place of Māori in New Zealand, and provides general guidance on Māori cultural preferences and specific examples around key issues.

  • To work successfully with patients from different cultural backgrounds, a doctor needs to demonstrate appropriate attitudes, awareness, knowledge and skills. This booklet offers guidance on the cultural diversity and cultural preferences of Pacific peoples in New Zealand.


  • During the course of a medical career, a doctor may be involved in management or have a leadership role. This statement outlines the standards doctors are expected to meet when they take on such roles. While doctors in a leadership role have a duty to their workplace and the wider community, their first consideration must always be the interests and safety of patients.


  • What to do when you have concerns about a colleague

    All doctors have a duty to act on their concerns about a colleague, but doctors in management roles have an extra responsibility to ensure that there are appropriate reporting procedures in place, and these procedures are known to staff who may need to use them. This statement provides guidance for doctors who are concerned about a medical colleague's conduct, performance, competence or health, and provides suggestions on what to do and who to approach.

  • Unprofessional behaviour and the health care team

    Inappropriate behaviour that adversely affects other staff members and teams from functioning effectively is unprofessional behaviour. This statement provides guidance on managing behaviour that disrupts team work, and responding appropriately to the health, competence and conduct concerns about a doctor.

  • Statement on medical certification

    Doctors are often asked to sign certificates for a wide range of purposes, such as confirming sickness, impairment or death. This statement outlines factors to consider, and the standards that doctors must follow, when issuing a medical certificate.

  • Sexual boundaries in the doctor-patient relationship

    This statement outlines the doctor's responsibility to maintain sexual boundaries with patients, includes advice on what to do if boundaries are threatened, and offers guidance on sexual relationships with former patients and with family members of patients.

  • This statement outlines the doctor's responsibility to maintain professional boundaries with patients and covers the inherent power imbalance in the doctor-patient relationship, gifts, bequests and loans, other financial transactions, acting as a representative or enduring power of attorney, and social media.

  • Doctors are often asked for input by their family and friends. This may include requests for medical advice or a prescription, or more substantial involvement such as performing a procedure. This statement explains why doctors must avoid treating themselves and those they have a close personal relationship with.

  • Doctors are sometimes asked by a third party (such as an insurance company or ACC) to carry out medical assessments of patients. This statement explains the role of non-treating doctors and the standard of care expected of doctors within an assessing relationship.

  • Doctors and health related commercial organisations

    Health related commercial organisations provide products and services for the public good, and also contribute to medical research and doctors' continuing professional development. The objectives of a commercial organisation are often different to those of a doctor, and it is possible that a doctor's interaction with a health-related commercial organisation might result in an unnecessary, inefficient, or inappropriate use of health resources, which has the potential to harm patients. This statement outlines our expectations when doctors interact with health related commercial organisations, including handling possible conflicts of interests.


  • Sexual boundaries in the doctor-patient relationship

    This statement outlines the doctor's responsibility to maintain sexual boundaries with patients, includes advice on what to do if boundaries are threatened, and offers guidance on sexual relationships with former patients and with family members of patients.

  • This guide outlines what to expect when you see a doctor for a cosmetic procedure. It does not cover cosmetic procedures performed by other professionals – just doctors

  • You and your doctor

    This guide is intended to help you and your family work together with your doctor so that you get the best possible healthcare

Notification management

  • The purpose of these principles is to provide a framework for good decision-making about notifications assessed and managed by the Council. The principles are not intended to cover every specific scenario but rather provide guidance in how notifications should be assessed and managed. The framework applies to the decisions of the Notifications Triage Team (NTT) and of Council.

Performance assessment committees

  • The performance assessment - what you can expect

    Under the HPCAA, doctors can have their competence or performance reviewed at any time, or in response to concerns about their practice. This guide outlines what you can expect if you are undergoing a performance assessment

  • Assessing Doctors Performance

    This document by Dr Ian St George, a former Council medical adviser, outlines the practice and theory of performance assessments. A range of topics are covered, from ‘How to identify an underperforming doctor’ to ‘Assessing the doctor who practises complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)’. It is particularly helpful for doctors wanting to avoid under performance and professional isolation.

  • This handbook is intended as a guide for doctors undergoing performance assessments and aims to provide you with an understanding of how performance assessments work,
    and to ensure that there are no surprises for you throughout the assessment process

Professional conduct committees